The letter to the Romans is a missionary letter to various gatherings of believers in Rome. The apostle Paul had not met most of these people (1:11-15), but he had heard of them (cf. 16:3-16). Paul was on his way to deliver the large gift from the Gentile believers to the believers in Judea that were struggling financially. After the gift was delivered, Paul planned to God to Spain, and he sought their help for that intended journey. (Paul was imprisoned when in Jerusalem, and he went to Rome in a way he did not plan. Read Acts 21:17-28:31.)
Most of Romans is like being in a Bible study with the apostle Paul. He teaches and raises questions that he had undoubtedly heard many times. After opening remarks in which he introduces himself and the gospel message (1:1-15), he sets forth his theme: the gospel and the righteousness that God provides through it (1:16-17). Next, he declares the sinful condition and need of all people for justification (1:18-3:20). When everyone seems doomed, Paul turns to the good news about how to be right with God by his surpassing grace (3:21-5:21). The key verses of the book are 3:21-26. Grace reigns in believers through union with Christ.
Next, he answers two objections. First, he tells us that grace leads to holiness not to sinfulness (6:1-7:6). The gospel does not provide “a license to sin”; instead, it overthrows the reign of sin. Second, he talks about the law covenant and the need for grace (7:7-8:4). What the law covenant could not do, God did in Christ. Paul then continues his main idea about the triumph of justifying grace (8:5-39). Here are some of the most loved teachings in the letter.
Next, Paul answers the third objection to his teaching about God’s purpose and Israel (9:1-11:32). He shows that God’s purposes were always to save a remnant from both Israel and the nations. He wraps up the section on justification with a doxology (11:33-36). Next, he returns to show that grace also transforms people (12:1-15:13). He then gives his missionary appeal (15:14-33). The letter ends with greetings, an appeal, and a prayer (16:1-27).
Obviously, there is much more to be said. But I hope this gives you a brief guide to what has been called “the greatest letter ever written!”
Grace and peace, David